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Top 10 Blood Disorders Everything You Need To Know

Blood disorders can be life-threatening and affect millions of people worldwide. There are many types of blood disorders, each with its own symptoms and treatments. This article will discuss the top 10 blood disorders, their causes, symptoms, and treatments.

Table of Contents

What are Blood Disorders?

Blood Disorders

Blood disorders are medical conditions that affect the blood and blood components, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, or the smaller circulating cells called platelets, which are critical for clot formation. All three types of cells are created in the bone marrow, which is the soft tissue found inside your bones. Your body’s organs and tissues receive oxygen through red blood cells. White blood cells assist your body in fighting against illnesses. Platelets help in the clotting of your blood. 

Blood cell disorders affect one or more cell types’ ability to form and function. Some examples of blood disorders include anemia, leukemia, and hemophilia. Fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and easy bruising or bleeding are all signs of blood disorders. Depending on the specific condition, different forms of treatment, such as medication, blood transfusions, or surgery, may be used to treat blood disorders.

List Of Blood Disorders

There are many different types of blood disorders, as listed below.

  • Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)
  • Hemophilia
  • Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT)
  • Sickle Cell Disease (SCD)
  • Thalassemia
  • Von Willebrand Disease (VWD)
  • Leukemia
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Polycythemia vera (PV)
  1. Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

What is VTE

Venous thromboembolism (VTE), also known as blood clots, is an underrecognized but serious medical condition. VTE is a condition that everyone should be aware of because it can happen to anyone at any age and cause serious illness, disability, and, in some cases, death. VTE can be prevented and cured if caught early enough. That’s a good point.

Types of VTE

There are two types of venous thromboembolism, as listed below.

  1. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
  2. Pulmonary embolism (PE)
  3. Healthcare-associated venous thromboembolism (HA-VTE).

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)

Medical disorder Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is caused by forming a blood clot in a deep vein. These clots can form in the arm, although most typically, they form in the lower leg, thigh, or pelvis. It is critical to understand DVT since it can affect anyone and cause serious sickness, disability, and, in some circumstances, death. DVT may be treated and prevented if detected early, which is good news.

DVT Symptoms

A little less than 50% of DVT patients have no symptoms at all. The most typical DVT signs and symptoms in the area of the body that is afflicted are listed below.

  • Leg pain or leg tenderness
  • Leg swell (oedema)
  • Skin that is warm to the touch
  • Reddish stains or streaks

Consult a physician right away if you experience any of these signs.

Pulmonary Embolism (PE)

A pulmonary embolism is a blood clot that prevents blood flow to a lung artery. The blood clot typically originates in a deep leg vein called DVT and goes to the lung. The clot rarely develops in a vein in another area of the body. PE is potentially fatal because one or more clots block lung blood flow. On the other hand, taking quick medication significantly reduces the risk of death. 

You can lower your risk of pulmonary embolism by preventing leg blood clots (deep vein thrombosis). DVT and PE are serious, potentially fatal diseases requiring urgent medical attention.

PE Symptoms

A PE can occur without any DVT symptoms. PE symptoms and signs can include:

  • Having difficulties breathing
  • Irregular or faster-than-usual heartbeat
  • Chest pain or discomfort that typically gets worse when you breathe deeply or cough
  • spitting up blood
  • Extremely low blood pressure, feeling dizzy or faint

If you notice any of these symptoms, consult your doctor immediately.

Healthcare-Associated Venous Thromboembolism (HA-VTE)

Blood Disorders

Venous thromboembolism, a dangerous and potentially fatal blood clot, is more likely to develop in patients who are in or have recently been out of the hospital, recovering from surgery, or receiving cancer treatment (VTE). Healthcare-associated venous thromboembolism (HA-VTE) is the term used to describe a blood clot that happens after hospitalization, surgery, or another medical operation. Significantly, HA-VTE is a costly, deadly, and growing public problem.

How are DVT and PE Diagnosed?

A preliminary blood test called D-dimer, which checks for clotting activity, might be done. Ultrasound of the leg is frequently used for DVT. PE is the most common use for computed tomography, a CT or CAT scan. The ventilation-perfusion lung scan is occasionally utilized. Both exams can see intravenous dyes in the lung arteries while searching for clot blockages.

DVT And PE Treatments


Medication is used to both treat and prevent DVT. Compression or gradual compression stockings are occasionally advised to reduce discomfort and swelling and avoid DVT. They need to be worn for up to two years after DVT. In severe cases, the clot may need to be surgically removed.

For PE

To treat PE, prompt medical intervention is required. In severe, life-threatening PE cases, medications referred to as “thrombolytics” can dissolve the clot. Anticoagulants are additional medications that doctors may prescribe to prevent the formation of new clots. To avoid further blood clots, some patients might require ongoing care. 

Did you know that…

DVT does not bring on heart attacks and strokes. The two primary categories of blood clots are The nature and location of the clot, which determine how it affects the body.

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the medical term for a blood clot in a deep vein of the thigh, pelvis, or occasionally an arm. This kind of blood clot does not bring on heart attacks and strokes.

A blood clot in an artery, commonly in the heart or brain, is called “arterial thrombosis.” A heart attack or stroke can result from this type of blood clot. Although both forms of clots can result in major health issues, there are differences in their causes and the preventative measures you can take.

  1. Hemophilia

Blood Disorders

Hemophilia is commonly an inherited bleeding problem where the blood does not clot properly. Both spontaneous and post-injury or post-operative bleeding could result from this. Many different proteins found in blood, referred to as clotting factors, can help stop bleeding.

Hemophilia Cause 

Hemophilia is a disease in which one of the genes that give instructions for making the clotting factor proteins necessary to form a blood clot is altered or mutated. The clotting protein may function partially or not due to this alteration or mutation. The X chromosome has these genes.

Types of Hemophilia

Hemophilia is classified into three types, as listed below.

Hemophilia A

The type of haemophilia that is most common is haemophilia A. It occurs when there is insufficient clotting factor 8 (factor VIII).

Hemophilia B

Hemophilia B is caused by a deficiency of blood clotting factor 9 (factor IX).

Hemophilia C

Hemophilia C is due to a deficiency of blood clotting factor 11 (factor XI). One in 100,000 people has this kind of haemophilia, which is incredibly rare.

Symptoms of Hemophilia

The following are typical haemophilia symptoms, which are given below:

  1. The joints are bleeding. This frequently affects the knees, elbows, and ankles and can result in swelling, soreness, or tightness in the joints.
  2. The bleeding into muscle and soft tissue results in a blood clot in the area or into the skin, which causes bruising (called a hematoma).
  3. Bleeding from the gums and mouth and bleeding after tooth loss is difficult to stop.
  4. After circumcision, bleeding (surgery performed on male babies to remove the hood of skin, called the foreskin, covering the head of the penis).
  5. The bleeding from vaccines or other shots.
  6. A hard birth resulted in an infant’s head bleeding.
  7. Blood in the faeces or urine
  8. The frequent nosebleeds that are difficult to stop.

Hemophilia Diagnosis

Many people who have haemophilia or have family members who do may prefer that their baby boys get tested as soon as possible after delivery.

A new mutation that isn’t found in other family members affects about one-third of newborns diagnosed with haemophilia. A doctor may do a haemophilia test if a newborn shows certain symptoms in these cases.

To make a diagnosis, doctors would perform specific blood tests to check whether the blood was clotting normally. If it doesn’t, clotting factor tests, also known as factor assays, will be used to determine the cause of the bleeding issue. These blood tests would determine the type and degree of haemophilia.

Hemophilia Treatment

For the blood to clot properly, replacing the missing clotting factor is the best strategy to treat haemophilia. To do this, commercially prepared factor concentrations are infused (administered through a vein). Hemophiliacs can learn how to give these infusions by themselves to stop bleeding events, and applying the infusions routinely (referred to as prophylaxis) can even prevent most major bleeding.

Receiving top-notch medical attention from specialists with knowledge of the illness, like doctors and nurses, can help prevent some serious problems. Going to a thorough haemophilia treatment centre (HTC) is frequently the best option for care. In addition to providing care for all conditions related to the disorder, an HTC offers health education to assist people with haemophilia in maintaining their health.

Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT)

  1. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT)

A blood disorder known as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is characterized by the improper development of some blood vessels, primarily blood capillaries. Capillaries are tiny blood vessels that carry blood from arteries to veins and are typically present between arteries and veins. These may not form in the blood vessels of a person with HHT. Compared to other blood vessels, the region between an artery and a vein is frequently delicate and more prone to bleeding. 

Symptoms of HHT

The symptoms of HHT can affect men, women, and children of all ethnic groups and cultures, and some of these issues can be serious and even life-threatening. Fortunately, there are treatments for HHT if it is found early. But HHT has no known treatment.

  • The most common symptom of HHT is nosebleeds, which are brought on by tiny, irregular blood vessels in the inner layer of the nose. 
  • On the hands, fingertips, face, lips, the lining of the mouth, and nose, abnormal blood vessels in the skin can appear as tiny red or purplish spots that lighten for a split second when touched. 
  • Another possible sign of HHT is bleeding within the stomach or intestines due to faulty blood vessels lining the digestive tract.  
  • Other symptoms of HHT include aberrant artery-vein connections in the brain, lungs, and liver, which frequently rupture without any prior warning signs.

HHT Causes

HHT is a hereditary condition in which one gene (mutated external icon) in each HHT patient is altered, causing HHT in addition to one healthy gene. A mutation can cause HHT in just one gene. Each child born to a parent with HHT has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutated gene from that parent and developing HHT. Each child also has a 50% chance of inheriting the healthy gene and avoiding HHT. HHT can be caused by at least five distinct genes, of which three are known.

Types of HHT

There are three main types of HHT, as given below.

Type 1

Mutations in the endoglin gene cause it.

Type 2

Mutations cause it in the ACVRL1 (ALK1) gene. 

HHT-Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

SMAD4 gene mutations cause it. 

Each of these genes produces a protein essential for the healthy growth of blood vessels. 

HHT Diagnosis

Genetic testing can be used to identify HHT. Genetic testing can help individuals and families unsure of their HHT status confirm the diagnosis if a gene mutation is found. Genetic testing can reveal a gene mutation in about 34% of families with HHT symptoms. Moreover, HHT can be identified using clinical criteria (the presence and a history of signs in a parent, sibling, or child).

Treatment For HHT

The symptoms can differ greatly among HHT patients in the same family. HHT can affect different parts of the body differently, which can affect complications and treatment options. Controlling bleeding, treating anaemia, and avoiding issues brought on by abnormal artery-vein connections in the brain and lungs are all possible forms of treatment.

Sickle Cell Disease

  1. Sickle Cell Disease (SCD)

A group of inherited red blood cell disorders is called sickle cell disease (SCD). Red blood cells (RBCs) have the oxygen-carrying protein known as haemoglobin. Round and healthy red blood cells travel through tiny blood vessels to deliver oxygen to every body part. In a person with SCD, the haemoglobin is abnormal, which makes the red blood cells hard and sticky, like the “sickle,” a C-shaped farm tool. Red blood cells are constantly in short supply due to the early death of sickle cells. Additionally, they become stuck and obstruct blood flow when they pass through tiny blood vessels. This may result in discomfort and more severe health issues like an infection, acute chest syndrome, and stroke.

SCD Causes 

SCD is a genetic disorder that manifests at birth. A child must inherit two abnormal haemoglobin-coding genes from each parent for the condition to be passed down to them.

There are various types of SCD. A person’s particular type of SCD is determined by the genes they inherited from their parents. People with SCD inherit genes that encode abnormal haemoglobin. The most typical SCD varieties are listed below.


The Hb2 “SS” is inherited from both parents. It is usually the most severe form of the disease when haemoglobin S, an abnormal form of haemoglobin that causes the red blood cells to become rigid and sickle-shaped, is present.


The “S” gene for haemoglobin and the “C” gene for a different type of abnormal haemoglobin is inherited from one parent and the other by people with this form of SCD. This is typically a less severe form of SCD.

HbS Beta Thalassemia

Sickle beta-zero thalassemia is the fourth type of SCD. The beta-globin gene is also a factor. Beta thalassemia comes in two forms: “zero” (HbS beta0) and “plus” (HbS beta+). Symptoms are comparable to those of HbSS anaemia. Beta-zero thalassemias, on the other hand, are more severe and associated with a worse prognosis.

There are also a few uncommon types of SCD, such as the ones listed below.

HbSD, HbSE, and HbSO

People with these types of SCD inherit one gene that codes for haemoglobin “S” and one gene that codes for another abnormal type of haemoglobin (“D”, “E”, or “O”). The severity of these less common types of SCD differs.

SCD Signs and Symptoms

Sickle cell anaemia signs and symptoms frequently first appear in children. Although they can appear in infants as young as 4 months old, they typically do so around the 6-month mark. While there are several types of SCD, all of them have similar symptoms that vary in severity. These were some examples:

  • Anaemia causes excessive fatigue or irritability.
  • Baby fussiness
  • Hands and feet swelling and pain
  • Infections occur frequently.
  • chest, back, arms, or legs pain
  • Bedwetting as a result of kidney problems
  • Yellowing of the skin & eyes (jaundice)

How is Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) Diagnosed?

  1. In addition to a thorough medical history and physical examination, you may be subjected to blood and other tests.
  2. Many states conduct routine newborn sickle cell screenings to allow for the earliest start of treatment. With early diagnosis and treatment, the risk of complications can be reduced.
  3. Haemoglobin electrophoresis, a blood test, can determine if a person has sickle cell disease or is a sickle cell gene carrier.

Treatment of SCD

Early diagnosis and prevention of complications are extremely important for sickle cell disease treatment. Treatment focuses on preventing infection, symptoms, and organ damage like strokes. The following things are possible treatments.

  • Pain medications are used to treat sickle cell crises.
  • Eight to ten glasses of water per day are advised to prevent and treat pain crises.  
  • Blood transfusions may aid treatment of anaemia and prevent strokes. 
  • Infections can be prevented with vaccinations and antibiotics.
  • Supplements containing folic acid help prevent severe anaemia.
  • Acute chest syndrome and pain crises are less common when taking hydroxyurea medication.  
  • Retinopathy is screened frequently during eye exams.  
  • For some SCD patients, bone marrow transplants may be beneficial.  


  1. Thalassemia

An inherited blood disorder called thalassemia causes your body to make less haemoglobin than normal. You may have fatigue from the anaemia caused by thalassemia. A person can experience fatigue, weakness, or shortness of breath when there are not enough healthy red blood cells because insufficient oxygen is delivered to all the other cells in the body. This condition is known as “anaemia.” 

Thalassemia patients may experience mild to severe anaemia. Extreme anaemia can kill you and harm your organs. Treatment may not be necessary if your thalassemia is mild. However, more serious conditions might require frequent blood transfusions. You can take action to deal with fatigue by following a healthy diet and doing regular exercise.

What Are The Two Main Types Of Thalassemia?

There are two types of thalassemia.

  1. Alpha thalassemia is caused by the absence or mutation of a gene or genes related to the alpha globin protein.
  2. Beta thalassemia is caused by when similar gene mutation and affects the production of the beta-globin protein.

Thalassemia Symptoms 

Thalassemia can be classified into several types. Depending on the nature and severity of your condition, you may experience certain signs and symptoms. Signs and symptoms of thalassemia include:

  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Pale or yellowish skin
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Facial bone deformities
  • Slow growth
  • Dark urine

Prevention For Thalassemia

Thalassemia is generally incurable. If you want to have children but have thalassemia or carry the thalassemia gene, you should consider speaking with a genetic counsellor for advice.

An early-stage embryo is checked for genetic mutations using assisted reproductive technology and in vitro fertilization. By doing this, it may be possible for parents who have thalassemia or are carriers of a bad haemoglobin gene to have healthy offspring.

Mature eggs are removed from the ovaries and fertilized with sperm in a dish in a laboratory as part of the procedure. After being examined for genetic defects, only those embryos that are free of them are implanted into the uterus.

  1. Von Willebrand Disease

Von Willebrand disease is a bleeding condition resulting from a lack of von Willebrand factor (VWF). This particular protein type aids in the clotting of your blood. Hemophilia, a different bleeding disorder, is unlike von Willebrand.

Your blood vessel ruptures, causing bleeding. A certain kind of cell in your blood called platelets clumps together to plug broken blood arteries and halt bleeding. The protein known as VWF helps platelets cluster together or clot. If your levels of functional VWF are low, your platelets won’t be able to clot effectively. This causes bleeding that lasts a long time.

Causes of Von Willebrand Disease

A genetic mutation brings on Von Willebrand’s disease. The type of von Willebrand disease you have depends on whether one or both of your parents passed a mutated gene onto you. For instance, having a mutated gene from both of your parents is a requirement for developing type 3 Von Willebrand. You will experience type 1 or type 2 von Willebrand disease if you have only inherited one copy of the mutated gene. 

What are the Types of VWD

Von Willebrand disease can be of three main types:

Type 1

Von Willebrand disease is most frequently diagnosed as type 1. Your body produces less VWF than usual as a result of it. VWF, which aids in blood clotting, is still in trace amounts in your body. You’ll probably have some minor bleeding issues, but you’ll be able to lead a normal life.

Type 2

When you have type 2 von Willebrand disease, your VWF levels are normal, but structural and functional flaws prevent it from functioning properly. Subtypes of type 2 include 2A, 2B, 2M, and 2N.

Type 3

Von Willebrand disease type 3 is the most dangerous variety. Your body won’t produce any VWF if you have this type. This will prevent your platelets from clotting. This will put you at risk of severe, difficult-to-stop bleeding.


Type 3 of the illness is the most severe. You don’t have VWF in your body if you have this type. This makes managing bleeding episodes challenging. Additionally, it raises your risk of internal bleeding, such as joint and digestive bleeding. The following are the three categories’ most typical symptoms.

  • excessive bleeding following an operation, surgery, or dental procedure
  • , bleeding from the nose that doesn’t cease in ten minutes
  • , prolonged or heavy menstrual bleeding
  • While giving birth and during labour, there was a lot of blood.
  • Your faeces or urine contains blood.
  • Quick bruising or large bruises


The type and severity of the disease determine the treatment for VWD. Minor bleeding may not require medical attention. Treatment types that are most commonly used are included.

  • The desmopressin acetate injection encourages the body to release more VWF into the blood. 
  • People with milder forms of VWD (primarily Type 1) are treated with desmopressin acetate nasal spray. 
  • In factor replacement therapy, medications are injected into an arm vein to replenish the blood’s deficient factor.
  • Antifibrinolytic medications are given intravenously or orally to aid in slowing or preventing the dissolution of blood clots.
  • The blood levels of VWF and factor VIII can be raised by birth control pills, which can also lessen menstrual blood loss. A doctor may prescribe these pills to patients who experience heavy menstrual bleeding.


  1. Leukemia

White blood cell cancer is known as leukaemia. It grows in the bone marrow before migrating to other organs and the blood. The various forms of leukaemia. They are divided into two groups: 

  • based on whether the condition progresses quickly (acute vs chronic leukaemia) 
  • as well as the kind of blood cell affected (lymphocytic and myeloid leukaemia being the most prevalent). 

Bone marrow cells with acute leukaemia are immature and unable to perform their normal functions—rapid growth in the number of abnormal cells. Cells are more developed and capable of performing some of their typical tasks in chronic leukaemia. The growth of abnormal cells happens more gradually.  

Causes of Leukemia

Although the exact cause of acute leukaemia is unknown, certain risk factors include: 

  • being exposed to powerful radiation
  • exposure to some substances, like benzene
  • viruses like the Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus

The Philadelphia chromosome is abnormal in most patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. High radiation exposure has also been connected to it. 

What are the Types of Leukemia

Below is a list of the most prevalent types of leukaemia.

Leukaemia acute lymphocytic (ALL) 

The most typical form of leukaemia in young children is this one. Adults are also susceptible to ALL.

Acute Myeloid Leukemia(AML)

One typical form of leukaemia is AML. Both adults and children can get it. Adults with AML most frequently develop acute leukaemia.

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

Years may pass before the symptoms of CLL, the most common chronic adult leukaemia, necessitate treatment.

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML)

Adults are most commonly affected by this type of leukaemia. A person with CML may experience few or no symptoms for months or years before entering a phase where the leukaemia cells grow more quickly.

Other Types

Other, more uncommon types of leukaemia include myelodysplastic syndromes, hairy cell leukaemia, and myeloproliferative disorders. 

Leukaemia is the most prevalent cancer in children, and acute lymphocytic leukaemia is the most prevalent subtype. Acute myeloid leukaemia, followed by chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, is the most prevalent type in adults.

What are leukaemia’s early warning signs and symptoms?

The following are a few leukaemia warning signs.

  • Flu-like symptoms such as fever, chills, and others
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Frequent infections
  • reduced appetite
  • Loss of weight
  • liver, spleen, or lymph nodes that are swollen or tender.
  • Simple bruising or bleeding
  • small red spots underneath the skin
  • swollen or bleeding gums
  • especially at night, sweat
  • joint or bone pain
  • Anaemia

Additionally, other, less severe conditions may exhibit these symptoms. Finding out what might be causing these symptoms requires visiting your doctor. 

leukaemia disease diagnosed

How is leukaemia disease diagnosed? 

To determine if you have leukaemia, your doctor may perform one or more of the following procedures: 

  • complete medical background 
  • physical examination 
  • blood tests 
  • imaging examinations like x-rays, ultrasounds, CT scans, MRIs, and bone scans 
  • a bone marrow biopsy
  • operating room lymph node biopsy 
  • Puncture of the back

What are the treatments for leukaemia? 

Chemotherapy is the main leukaemia treatment method. This can be used both separately and in conjunction with the following: 

  • Transplants of bone marrow
  • Radiation therapy 
  • using interferon for immunotherapy 
  • Splenectomy (spleen removal) through surgery 

A treatment strategy is selected depending on the type of leukaemia, the patient’s age, white blood cell count, cancer genetics, and whether or not there was a preleukemic condition or a previously treated cancer.

  1. Thrombocytopenia

You can have thrombocytopenia if your blood platelet count is low. Blood cells without colour, called platelets (thrombocytes), aid in blood clotting. In blood vessel injuries, platelets gather and form plugs to stop bleeding. It mostly has an impact on both adults and children.

Causes of Thrombocytopenia

The following factors could lead to thrombocytopenia:

  1. diseases of the bone marrow, like leukaemia
  2. Immune-system issues
  3. It is well-known that Vitamin B-12 contributes to the health of your blood cells and that a B-12 deficiency has been linked to low platelet counts. 
  4. The other potential side effect of using certain drugs. 

Thrombocytopenia Levels

  1. Mild thrombocytopenia
  2. Moderate thrombocytopenia
  3. Severe thrombocytopenia

Symptoms of Thrombocytopenia

Depending on how low your platelet count is, you might or might not experience the signs and symptoms of thrombocytopenia.

  • Simple or frequent bruising (purpura)
  • Petechiae, tiny reddish-purple spots, usually form on the lower legs and indicate external bleeding into the skin.
  • persistent bleeding from wounds
  • bleeding from the nose or gums
  • blood in the stools or urine
  • Unusually heavy menstrual flow
  • Fatigue
  • Enlarged Spleen

How is a low platelet count diagnosed?

The method for determining thrombocytopenia is described as

  1. Physical examination
  2. Medical history
  3. Ultrasound
  4. Multiple blood tests such as CBC, blood smear, etc.
  5. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy

Thrombocytopenia Treatment

There are various ways to treat low platelet counts. Depending on your condition’s underlying cause and seriousness, your doctor or specialist will decide on the best course of action for treating low platelet counts. Medical attention might be necessary if your low platelet count is more serious. Treatment choices could be:

  • transfusions of blood or platelets
  • You are altering the drugs you’re taking for your low platelet count. 
  • prescribing immune suppressants like immune globulin, steroids, or other medications
  • spleen removal procedures
  1. Polycythemia Vera

This type of blood cancer is referred to as polycythemia vera. As a result, your bone marrow produces excessive red blood cells. Your blood becomes thicker and moves more slowly due to the other cells, which can result in catastrophic problems like blood clots.

Rare is polycythemia vera. Since it usually takes time to manifest, you might need to realize you have it. The condition is frequently discovered during a blood test for another reason.

Polycythemia vera Causes 

Polycythemia vera arises when a gene mutation causes blood cell production problems. Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are the three different types of blood cells that are normally controlled by your body. However, in polycythemia vera, some of these blood cells are produced in excess by the bone marrow. Although it is unknown what caused the gene mutation in polycythemia vera, the condition is typically not passed down from your parents.

Types of polycythemia vera

There are two main categories:

Primary polycythemia, of which Polycythemia Vera (PV) is the most prevalent form, is characterized by a problem with the bone marrow cells that produce red blood cells.

Secondary polycythemia is a condition in which an underlying illness causes excessive production of red blood cells.

Symptoms of polycythemia vera

The polycythemia vera symptom list is more detailed.

  • Itching, particularly following a warm bath or shower 
  • Your hands, feet, arms, or legs are numb, tingly, burning, or weak.
  • Shortly after eating, you may have bloating or pain in your left upper abdomen due to an enlarged spleen.
  • unusual bleeding, such as nosebleeds or gingival bleeding, one excruciatingly swollen joint
  •  usually the big toe, and shortness of breath while lying down
  • breathing problems and shortness of breath when lying down

Diagnosis And Treatment

Diagnosis And Treatment

Even though the JAK2 V617F mutation is not unique to PV, it is strongly associated with the diagnosis. 

Based on thrombosis risk stratification, all patients receive phlebotomy and low-dose aspirin as part of their treatment. Cytoreductive therapy is also administered to high-risk patients. The most popular method of treating polycythemia vera is phlebotomy, which involves taking frequent blood samples from veins with a needle. The process is the same as when giving blood. Your blood volume and the number of extra blood cells decrease.

  1. Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)

Myelodysplastic syndromes, also known as myelodysplasia, are a class of malignancies that prevent your blood stem cells from developing into healthy blood cells. Serious diseases, including anaemia, recurrent infections, and uncontrollable bleeding, can be brought on by myelodysplastic syndromes. Acute myeloid leukaemia can occur in a few MDS patients. If you have MDS, your healthcare providers will focus treatment on slowing down its progression, easing your symptoms, and treating the diseases that MDS is known to cause.

Myelodysplastic Syndrome Types

Myelodysplastic syndromes are divided into subcategories by the World Health Organization based on the kind of blood cells involved: 

  • Red blood cells
  • White blood cells 
  • Platelets

Subtypes of MDS include:

Single-Lineage Dysplasia

Blood cells can be divided into three distinct types: platelets, red blood cells, or white blood cells.

Multilineage Dysplasia

In this subtype of multilineage dysplasia, two or three blood cell types are abnormal.

Ring Sideroblasts MSD

Several blood cell types are present in this subtype but in low concentrations. Rings of extra iron are a defining characteristic of the red blood cells made by the bone marrow.

MDS Causes

The bone marrow in a healthy person creates young, immature blood cells that eventually mature. Myelodysplastic syndromes arise when something interferes with this procedure and prevents the maturation of the blood cells. Most myelodysplastic syndromes have an unknown cause. Others result from cancer treatments like chemotherapy and radiation or exposure to harmful chemicals like benzene.

Myelodysplastic Syndrome Symptoms 

Initial myelodysplastic syndrome symptoms and signs could be absent. There may eventually be myelodysplastic disorders.

  • fatigue and trouble breathing
  • Anaemia, characterized by an unusual pallor brought on by a low red blood cell count,
  • Low blood platelet count (thrombocytopenia), which can cause easy or unexpected bleeding or bruising
  • Petechiae are small, red spots caused by bleeding that appear beneath the skin.
  • Leukopenia is a condition characterized by recurrent illnesses caused by low white blood cell counts

MDS Diagnosis

Your doctor will inquire about your symptoms and previous medical history to determine which myelodysplastic syndromes you may be experiencing. They could also perform the following:

  1. A physical examination is to look for any further causes of your symptoms.
  2. To count the various cell types, take a sample of blood.
  3. Get a bone marrow sample for analysis. They or a technician will insert a needle into your breastbone or hip bone to extract the sample.
  4. Do a genetic analysis of your bone marrow cells.

Treatment of Myelodysplastic Syndrome

Myelodysplastic syndrome treatment focuses on symptom relief, preventing complications, and slowing disease progression. Although there is no known cure for myelodysplastic syndromes, some medications may be able to slow the disease’s progression.

If you are symptom-free, you might not immediately need therapy. Instead, your doctor may advise routine checkups and lab testing to monitor your health and determine whether the disease is advancing.

Bottom Line

Blood disorders can have a major impact on a person’s health, and it is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of various blood disorders and to be proactive in seeking treatment if necessary. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, such as eating a balanced diet, exercising regularly, and avoiding certain lifestyle choices, can help prevent and manage many blood disorders. Additionally, knowing the signs and symptoms of blood disorders and keeping up with regular medical checkups can help to ensure that any potential issues can be caught and treated early. Consult your doctor as soon as possible if you have any of the blood disorder’s symptoms.


In summary, blood disorders can have serious health consequences if left untreated. It is essential to seek medical attention if you experience any blood disorder symptoms. Knowing the top 10 blood disorders and their symptoms can help you identify potential health problems and receive timely treatment. Remember, early detection and proper management of blood disorders can improve your quality of life and prevent complications.

Frequently Asked Question

What are blood disorders?
Blood disorders affect the production, function, and/or components of blood, including red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma.

What are the common symptoms of blood disorders?
Common symptoms of blood disorders include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, dizziness, bruising, bleeding, and frequent infections.

What are the most common types of blood disorders?
The top 10 blood disorders include anemia, hemophilia, von Willebrand disease, thrombocytopenia, leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, hemochromatosis, sickle cell anemia, and aplastic anemia.

What causes blood disorders?
Blood disorders can be caused by genetic mutations, infections, medications, toxins, autoimmune diseases, and cancer.

How are blood disorders diagnosed and treated?
Diagnosis of blood disorders involves blood tests, bone marrow biopsy, and imaging tests. Treatment options vary depending on the type and severity of the disorder and may include medications, blood transfusions, bone marrow transplants, and gene therapy.

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